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FONDECYT N°11180066 ECMPOs: Ensamblajes Conservacionistas para la Protección de Lugares de Vida en la Zona Costera de la Región de Los Lagos

Abstract

Chile has a coastline of at least 6435 km stretching from the northern deserts to the central mediterean scrub, to the islands and archipelagos of the south and the Antarctic zone. Contemporarily, spatial demand in the south Chilean coastal zone for blue economic growth through aquaculture has been accelerating, a classic example of the blue Anthropocene. This vast marine space is subject to multiple overlapping economic interests: fishing and industrial aquaculture, urban development and tourism.

Since the late 1970s, Chiles’s neoliberal marine resources policy has focused upon the cultivation and exportation of salmon and mussels. Chile is currently the second largest exporter of salmon, trout and Mussels, and about 90% is concentrated in the regions of Los Lagos, Aysén and Magallanes. Several studies have shown the socio-environmental impacts of this industry. The excessive use of antibiotics, nutrient loading and eutrophication from intensive stocking have seen the subsequent die off of cold-water corals from harmful algal blooms among other species. The subsequent escape of invasive salmon and their incorporation into wild trophic chains; the accumulation of litter on beaches and the seabed; as well as important intra and extra-regional migration processes due to new job offers, have altered traditional productive practices and exacerbated natural resource conflicts.

Following this "ocean grabbing" local communities and social movements pushed for the development of Espacios Costeros Marinos Pueblos Originarios (ECMPOs) or Indigenous Marine Areas (IMAs). Successfully started through the Lafkenche law in 2008 (Law 20.249), indigenous communities are beginning to take back control of their coasts, allowing them to enhance conservation and protect their livelihoods.

IMAs protect the customary uses of the indigenous communities settled in the coastal zone, which have expanded in the south of Chile over the last years. IMAs actively freeze marine development until a management plan has been put into place. Furthermore, specific conservation mechanisms in the IMAs are beginning to emerge, limiting fishing activity, protecting birds and future strategies will limit acoustic pollution for cetaceans.

IMAs are institutional arrangements that have the potential to restructure the way culture and the environment are understood and planned together. In the same way, IMAs are emerging as mechanisms of marine conservation led from local communities. These are cultural communities that consider themselves to be part of the ecosystem and not abstracted from it.

Noticias

Objectives

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General Objective

To analyze the establishment of IMAs in the Los Lagos Region and their transition to marine conservation.

Specific Objectives

To characterize the territorial tensions and institutional environment in which IMAs are implemented,

To analyze the decision-making process associated with the establishment of the IMAs in the Los Lagos Region.

To analyse how the eco-political assemblages have emerged around specific IMAs and between communities in the Los Lagos Region: the action strategies, the forms of organization, the new practices deployed and the frames mobilized.

To identify transformations in the use of natural resources produced by the establishment of IMAs in the Los Lagos Region.

To project strategies to face the socio-ecological changes and to move towards inclusive marine conservation at southern Chile.

Methodology

Socio-environmental diagnosis and GIS analysis of the establishment of ECMPOs in the Los Lagos Region

This part of the research seeks to contextualize the socio-environmental contexts of ECMPOs in the Los Lagos Region. This includes collection of documentary data provided by public and private sources such as: CONADI, Subpesca, Sernapesca, Regional Governments, Ministry of Environment, Municipalities, NGOs, NGOs, among others. GIS analysis of surfaces, overlapping and spatial trends are to be included as well. Finally, the diagnosis is complemented by semi-structured interviews with key actors.

Actors and social networks Analysis


A social network survey is proposed; for the identification of the actors and their relationships/interactions within the decision-making process, associated with the establishment of IMAs. This will be analyzed using GEPHI social network analysis software, to identify: the network´s structure, actors´ relations and their key nodes.

Case-studies

The research will develop Ethnographies in specific IMAs of Los Lagos Region. These ethnographies will focus on the historical and current conflicts of natural resources uses, the process of IMA creation, as well as the participation of the communities in the management of the area. Further, the forms of appropriation of biodiversity conservation and the transformations in the practices and frames associated with the use of natural resources inside and outside the influence of the IMA zone. During the ethnography, in-depth interviews and participant observations will be conducted. The information will be recorded in audio and video, following the ethical norms of the work with indigenous communities.

Projective Analysis

In the final stage projective techniques will be applied to identify the perceptions of the actors about the future of the IMA and its impacts on the development path of the marine-coastal zone. We will apply scenario planning methodology (workshops and interviews).

Diffusion and dissemination

Outreach activities are contemplated in the indigenous communities involved in the research, seminars for public officials and other relevant actors in the territory, policy brief and media information.

Equipo / Investigadores

Francisco Araos

Francisco Araos

Investigador responsable

Antropólogo Social de la Universidad de Chile.
Doctor en Ambiente y Sociedad por la Universidad Estadual de Campinas, Brasil. Profesor Asociado Universidad de Los Lagos.
Investigador del Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo Regional y de Políticas Públicas.

Especialista en sustentabilidad y conservación de la biodiversidad. Con más de 15 años de experiencia en proyectos interdisciplinarios de investigación y desarrollo en el área socioambiental.

francisco.araos@ulagos.cl

https:/www.researchgate.net/profile/Francisco_Araos

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Wladimir Riquelme

Wladimir Riquelme

Investigador Asociado

Antropólogo por la Universidad Alberto Hurtado. Magíster en Asentamientos Humanos y Medio Ambiente por la P. Universidad Católica de Chile. Tiene experiencia en docencia universitaria, documental etnográfico e investigación científica y aplicada sobre pueblo mapuche, ruralidad chilena y tradiciones culturales.


wladiriquelme@gmail.com
https://independent.academia.edu/WladimirRiquelmeMaulén 

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Emilia Catalán

Emilia Catalán

Investigadora Asociada

Antropóloga Social, Universidad de Chile (2015)
Grupo de estudios Culturas y Naturalezas de la Universidad Alberto Hurtado (Chile)

emiliacatalan@gmail.com
https://uchile.academia.edu/EmiliaCatalan

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David Nuñez

David Nuñez

Investigador Asociado

Antropólogo Universidad Austral de Chile
Investigador Independiente
Miembro honorario Consorcio TICCA

tokoiwe@gmail.com

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Jeremy Evans

Jeremy Evans

Investigador Asociado 
Oceanógrafo Social.

Investigador Postdoctoral en la Universidad de Los Lagos.
Sus intereses de investigación incluyen ecología política y economía, conservación marina y terrestre, pesca, acuicultura, urbanización, naciones apátridas, geografía humana, cartografía participativa y realización de documentales.


j.anbleythevans@gmail.com

Francisco Brañas

Francisco Brañas

Investigador Asociado

Geógrafo Universidad de Concepción.
Investigador independiente.

fbranasloayza@gmail.com


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Ricardo Alvarez

Ricardo Alvarez

Investigador Asociado

Antropólogo, Universidad Austral de Chile.
Profesor Asociado Escuela de Arqueología, Universidad Austral de Chile.
Investigador Asociado Centro de Investigación en Arqueología Marítima del Pacífico Sur Oriental


Experiencia acumulada en torno a investigaciones interdisciplinarias sobre insularidad, problemáticas socioambientales, sistemas de creencias isleños y usos consuetudinarios.

 

taijataf@gmail.com

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ricardo_Abel

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2089-2037

 

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Allan Iwama

Allan Iwama

Investigador Asociado

Ingeniero Ambiental de la Universidad Estatal de Sao Paulo UNESP, magister en Detección Remota por el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Espacial (INPE). Doctor en Ambiente y Sociedad de la Universidad Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Actualmente es investigador de post-doc por la Universidad de Los Lagos (ULAGOS/CEDER), desarrollando proyecto sobre adaptación, cambios climáticos y SIG participativo en la isla de Chiloé (región de los Lagos en Chile) y litoral norte de São Paulo (Brasil). Tiene experiencia con planes de manejo de áreas protegidas (terrestres y marinas), análisis de la dinámica del uso de la tierra, metodologías participativas (cartografía social).


allan.iwama@ulagos.cl
http://www.iwamallan.net/


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Florencia Diestre

Florencia Diestre

Tesista

Antropóloga, Universidad Alberto Hurtado (2016)
Tesista Magister en Ciencias Sociales mención Sociología de la Modernización, Universidad de Chile.

f.diestre@gmail.com


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Joaquin Almonacid

Joaquin Almonacid

Tesista

Estudiante Antropología, Universidad de Concepción.

joaco.almon@gmail.com


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Daniça Cid

Daniça Cid

Tesista

Estudiante Trabajo Social, Universidad de los Lagos, Osorno.

danica.cid.gajardo@gmail.com


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Contacto

  • Contacto: Dr. Francisco Araos
  • Dirección: Lord Cochrane 1225
  • Teléfono: +56 64 220 5030
  • Mail: francisco.araos@ulagos.cl

Instituciones patrocinantes

Fondecyt      Universidad      CEDER     PAI

     Carrera Antropología     Laboratorio de ciencia ciudadana     Programa Atlas